*** The House of Ptolemy: Alexandria Ad Aegyptum

See Article History Alternative Titles: Pharaonic Egypt thrived for some 3, years through a series of native dynasties that were interspersed with brief periods of foreign rule. After Alexander the Great conquered the region in bc, urban Egypt became an integral part of the Hellenistic world. Under the Greek Ptolemaic dynasty, an advanced literate society thrived in the city of Alexandria, but what is now Egypt was conquered by the Romans in 30 bc. Pyramids dating from the 3rd millennium bc, Giza plateau near Cairo. Following the conquests, both urban and rural culture began to adopt elements of Arab culture, and an Arabic vernacular eventually replaced the Egyptian language as the common means of spoken discourse. The French occupation, which ended in , marked the first time a European power had conquered and occupied Egypt, and it set the stage for further European involvement. The concern of the European powers namely France and the United Kingdom , which were major shareholders in the canal to safeguard the canal for strategic and commercial reasons became one of the most important factors influencing the subsequent history of Egypt.

Sunken Cities: Egypt’s Lost Worlds

More than four centuries later, the city of Heracleion was noted by the ancient geographer Strabo to have been located to the east of Canopus at the mouth of the Canopic branch of the Nile, establishing another reference to its existence. The ancient city of Canopus has been mentioned many times in Greek mythology and Egyptian decrees, and by Greek historians.

Utilizing sophisticated technical equipment Goddio and his team were able to locate, map, and excavate parts of Canopus and Thonis-Heracleion and confirm that the region had indeed once been an important center of trade and site of religious pilgrimage. The excavation has also helped scholars understand the Mysteries of Osiris, an annual festival that commemorated one of Egypt’s most important myths—the murder and resurrection of the god Osiris.

An aid in the study of the Ptolemaic (Macedonian-based Greek), Roman Imperial (Greco-Roman), and Byzantine rulers of Egypt based in Alexandria, this site is intended for all classicists and students of Hellenistic history. The House of Ptolemy web site concentrates on the Ptolemies and their world, from – 30 BCE. However, since the histories of Greek rule and subsequent Roman rule overlap.

Traces of early man were found in Egypt dating back as early as , years ago. Egypt and ancient Canaan to the north probably served as the bridges by which successive waves of humans: Ancient Egyptians used a phonetic-pictograph writing called hieroglyphics by the Ancient Greeks. This system evolved from portrayal of pictures of objects to using stylized representation of objects to represent sound combinations and compose words, to a phonetic alphabet much like our own. Ancient Egypt boasted considerable achievements in art, medicine, astronomy and literature, and was the hub of civilization in much of the Near East and North Africa.

The unique history of ancient Egypt and visible monuments to that history helped Egyptians to preserve a distinct national consciousness, and to remain a separate entity during the years of Arab, Mameluke and Ottoman conquest. Mummy Until the conversion to Christianity, Egyptian polytheistic religion centered around the after life.

Pharaohs and rich Egyptians built elaborate tombs in caves or in Pyramids, decorated with elaborate art on the interior and containing jewelry and objects that would be needed in the after-life, and in some cases servants and slaves who were interred with their master. The walls of pyramids were decorated with elaborate stylized frescos such as the one at right, in which noble persons were shown as larger than slaves, and subjects were drawn in profile. In other periods, all subjects were shown in frontal view only.

The king or noble person had his or her body embalmed, wrapped in linen, and enclosed in an elaborate carved coffin as a mummy. The ancient Greek historian Herodotus wrote that Egypt is the gift of the Nile, meaning that it flourished on the top soil that was formed from silt brought by the recurrent floods of the Nile.

Indeed, Egypt is the gift of the Nile, and it was founded and developed around that river, for there is no rain in Egypt.

Egypt

Historical sites and landmarks[ edit ] Egypt — Obelisk, Alexandria. Roman Amphitheater Roman Pompey’s Pillar Due to the constant presence of war in Alexandria in ancient times, very little of the ancient city has survived into the present day. Much of the royal and civic quarters sank beneath the harbour due to earthquake subsidence in AD , and the rest has been built over in modern times.

Kom El Shoqafa ” Pompey’s Pillar “, a Roman triumphal column , is one of the best-known ancient monuments still standing in Alexandria today.

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The flag is a tricolor of three horizontal stripes—red, white, and black—with the national emblem in the center white stripe. The Arab Republic of Egypt Hymn. There are coins of 1, 5, 10, and 20 piasters and notes of 25 and 50 piasters and 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, and pounds. The metric system is the official standard, but various local units also are used: However, the cultivated and settled area Nile Valley, Delta, and oases constitutes only about 3. Comparatively, the area occupied by Egypt is slightly more than three times the size of the state of New Mexico.

Beyond the Suez Canal in the east, the Sinai Peninsula overlaps into Asia ; the Sinai was occupied by Israeli forces from to The total land boundary length is 2, km 1, mi and its total coastline is 2, km 1, mi. Egypt’s capital city, Cairo, is located in the northeastern part of the country. The Nile Delta is a broad, alluvial land, sloping to the sea for some km mi , with a km mi maritime front between Alexandria Al-Iskandariyah and Port Said.

Egypt International Travel Information

Biblical Egypt The Book of Genesis and Book of Exodus describe a period of Hebrew servitude in ancient Egypt, during decades of sojourn in Egypt, the escape of well over a million Israelites from the Delta , and the three-month journey through the wilderness to Sinai. A reasonably Bible-friendly interpretation is that they were a federation of Habiru tribes of the hill-country around the Jordan River. Presumably, this federation consolidated into the kingdom of Israel, and Judah split from that, during the dark age that followed the Bronze.

Alexandria (/ ˌ æ l ɪ ɡ ˈ z æ n d r i ə / or /-ˈ z ɑː n d-/; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندريه ‎ Eskendereyya; Arabic: الإسكندرية ‎ al-ʾIskandariyya; Coptic: ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ Alexandria or ⲣⲁⲕⲟϯ Rakote) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about 32 km (20 mi) along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the.

The Ptolemaic court cultivated extravagant luxury in the Greek style in its magnificent and steadily expanding palace complex, which occupied as much as a third of the city by the early Roman period. Its grandeur was emphasized in the reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphus… Character of the city Alexandria has long occupied a special place in the popular imagination by virtue of its association with Alexander and Cleopatra. Alexandria played an important role in preserving and transmitting Hellenic culture to the wider Mediterranean world and was a crucible of scholarship, piety, and ecclesiastical politics in early Christian history.

Although it has been asserted that Alexandria declined as a result of its conquest by Muslim Arabs in the 7th century ce, such a statement is misleading. As late as the 15th century, the city prospered as a transit point in the trade conducted between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean basin. Alexandria, EgyptDowntown Alexandria, Egypt. By the time French troops invaded Egypt in , Alexandria had been reduced to a town of some 10, inhabitants, significant mainly for its role in Ottoman maritime networks.

Flourishing in the 19th century as a major centre of the booming cotton industry, the modern city had come to bear little in common with the ancient metropolis. Throughout most of its history, Alexandria has thus remained a cosmopolitan town, belonging as much—or perhaps more—to the wider Mediterranean world as to its hinterland.

With the significant increase in agricultural exports, the influx of native Egyptians to the city, and the formation and integration of the Egyptian state, Alexandria became tied to the Nile valley more closely than ever before. As a result, it also became the locus of an emergent Egyptian national consciousness. Beginning in the mid th century, these underlying changes would be overshadowed for roughly a century by the rise to power of a Levantine business community.

Foreign dominance was reinforced by the overlay of British colonialism beginning in and by the formation of a foreign-dominated municipality in

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Even from their ancient times, the Egyptians had a true preoccupation for their culture. A fact proved by the relics and artifacts found in the excavations made in the historical sites from Egypt. The royalty of the ancient Egypt had a cult for the gold jewelry and paid much attention to the clothes they were wearing, preferring the silk clothes. The life of the ancient Egyptians was coordinated by their gods and goddesses in who they have a very strong faith.

Egypt is a country in North Africa, on the Mediterranean Sea, and is home to one of the oldest civilizations on earth. The name ‘Egypt’ comes from the Greek Aegyptos which was the Greek pronunciation of the ancient Egyptian name ‘Hwt-Ka-Ptah’ (“Mansion of the Spirit of Ptah”), originally the name of the city of s was the first capital of Egypt and a famous religious and trade.

Alexandria played an important role in preserving and transmitting Hellenic culture to the wider Mediterranean world and was a crucible of scholarship, piety, and ecclesiastical politics in early Christian history. Although it has been asserted that Alexandria declined as a result of its conquest by Muslim Arabs in the 7th century ce, such a statement is misleading. As late as the 15th century, the city prospered as a transit point in the trade conducted between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean basin.

Alexandria, EgyptDowntown Alexandria, Egypt. By the time French troops invaded Egypt in , Alexandria had been reduced to a town of some 10, inhabitants, significant mainly for its role in Ottoman maritime networks. Flourishing in the 19th century as a major centre of the booming cotton industry, the modern city had come to bear little in common with the ancient metropolis. Throughout most of its history, Alexandria has thus remained a cosmopolitan town, belonging as much—or perhaps more—to the wider Mediterranean world as to its hinterland.

With the significant increase in agricultural exports, the influx of native Egyptians to the city, and the formation and integration of the Egyptian state, Alexandria became tied to the Nile valley more closely than ever before. As a result, it also became the locus of an emergent Egyptian national consciousness. Beginning in the mid th century, these underlying changes would be overshadowed for roughly a century by the rise to power of a Levantine business community.

Alexandria

A multiple entry visa is also obtainable for 60 USD. There are other websites purporting to offer electronic visas, some of which reportedly charge double the official price, but this is the only official Government of Egypt portal for this service. Egyptian immigration officials occasionally have denied entry to travelers without explanation. Visas for gainful employment or study in Egypt must be obtained prior to travel. The day visa requires the submission of a travel agency support letter which may be obtained from travel agents at the border; their fees for providing this service vary.

The Government of Egypt opens this border on an infrequent and unpredictable basis.

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Getting Lost in Alexandria